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Marine Conservation Finance: the need for and scope of an emerging field

This paper reviews the state of marine conservation funding, identifies associated challenges, and recommends possible ways forward. It identifies five challenges: 1) funding for marine conservation is inadequate in terms of the size, duration, and diversity of revenue, 2) finance mechanisms are under-developed and under-utilised, 3) finance is often disconnected from conservation planning, 4) the environmental side-effects of economic activity increase the gap in global conservation funding, and 5) few individuals and programmes specialise in marine conservation finance and integrate its disparate lines of thinking. It proposes five solutions: 1) financial strategies for marine conservation, 2) increased research on and development of finance mechanisms, 3) integration of financial planning into conservation planning, 4) engagement of businesses in reducing the gap in conservation funding for marine ecosystems, and 5) definition, focus, and specialists for the emerging field of marine conservation finance. Multi-sector and interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to reduce the marine conservation-funding gap and sustain marine ecosystem services.


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Author(s): Melissa Bos, Robert L. Pressey, Natalie Stoeckl
Wednesday, Jul 1st 2015
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Linking Smallholders to PES/REDD+ Intermediaries and ecosystem service markets

This issue paper focuses specifically on intermediation strategies to deliver regulating and cultural services, primarily through payments for ecosystem services (PES) and REDD+. It highlights the importance of good governance and the need to establish clear land, forest and carbon rights to protect resource users’ rights and ensure the fair distribution of benefits and risks without further marginalising the poorest land users – and cautions that a one-size-fits-all, market-based approach may not be suitable for all.


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Author(s): Ina Porras & Isilda Nhantumbo (IIED)
Monday, Jun 15 2015
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Marine Protected Areas: Smart Investments in Ocean Health

Human lives depend on marine ecosystems that are healthy, resilient and productive. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an essential tool in the recovery and protection of our ocean and the vital services it provides. The analysis shows that every dollar invested to create marine protected areas is expected to be at least tripled in benefits returned through factors like employment, coastal protection, and fisheries.


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Author(s): WWF & Amsterdam’s VU University
Friday, Jun 5 2015
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Sourcebook of opportunities for enhancing cooperation among the biodiversity- related conventions at national and regional level

The Sourcebook provides an overview of the possibilities for enhancing the coherent implementation of the biodiversity-related conventions within five thematic areas (National Reporting and Information Management; Science-Policy Interface; Capacity Building; The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and NBSAPs and; Financial resource mobilisation and utilisation ) and through institutional arrangements. It is intended as a guidance document for country actors and highlights case studies of cooperation among national focal points and agencies responsible for implementing the conventions.


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Author(s): United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Sunday, May 31 2015
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African Ecological Futures: 2015

This report is based on this premise that African ecological futures can be fundamentally altered by economic and development decisions made today. In order to better understand what these futures might be and how to manage their impacts, the report investigates key forces shaping Africa’s today and tomorrow and draws a picture of how they come together across plausible scenarios to influence ecological futures. The report explores guiding principles for decisions and particular interventions by decision makers that may create the opportunity for more robust and resilient development.


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Author(s): African Development Bank (AfDB) & WWF
Tuesday, May 26 2015
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Biodiversity and Development Co-operation

This paper considers how development co-operation is addressing the twin objectives of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use on the one hand, and development and poverty reduction on the other. The paper showcases examples of how development co-operation is supporting conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services. It also identifies areas where more research is needed, such as sharing experience with the tools and good practices available for successful mainstreaming, and developing indicators to improve monitoring and evaluation to boost understanding of the effectiveness of biodiversity-related development interventions and of the relative performance of different mainstreaming approaches.


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Author(s): Anna Drutschinin, Juan Casado-Asensio, Jan Corfee-Morlot, Dilys Roe
Friday, May 1st 2015
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Revaluing Ecosystems: Pathways for Scaling up the Inclusion of Ecosystems Value in Decision Making

Ecosystems provide essential services to society, from pollination and filtering of pollution to climate and water regulation. These services are often treated as though they have no value, with ecosystems too frequently managed for short-term gain at the expense of broader, longer-term societal benefits. There is an increasing array of tools to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with these developments, as well as a growing body of ecosystem service assessments which highlight the changes in value. Efforts to incorporate ecosystem values in decision making are growing – through partnerships, in government, and in the private sector. This issue brief highlights barriers, opportunities, and pathways to broader consideration of ecosystem services in decision making.


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Author(s): Lauretta Burke, Janet Ranganathan and Robert Winterbottom (Editors) - World Resources Institute (WRI)
Monday, Apr 20 2015
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No Net Loss and Net Positive Impact Approaches for Biodiversity: Exploring the potential application of these approaches in the commercial agriculture

The study examines, for the first time, how commercial agriculture and forestry production could reduce global biodiversity loss by applying innovative approaches already used by some companies in the extractive and infrastructure industries.


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Author(s): IUCN’s Global Business and Biodiversity Programme
Thursday, Apr 16 2015
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Estimating Mobilized Private Climate Finance: Methodological Approaches, Options and Trade-offs

This working paper, a collaboration with OECD, aims to guide the development of more robust methodologies to estimate climate finance mobilized by public interventions; these methodologies are a critical component of the MRV architecture of international climate finance.


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Author(s): Aman Srivastava (WRI), Raphaël Jachnik (OECD) and Randy Caruso (OECD)
Wednesday, Apr 1st 2015
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Public Incentives Harmful to Biodiversity

The impact of public subsidies on the environment has been drawing increasing attention over the last few decades, in particular within the OECD and the EU. In France, the “Loi Grenelle I (Environmental Act of August 2009) explicitly provides that "the State, on the basis of on an audit, will review tax measures that are harmful to biodiversity and will propose new tools to allow a gradual transition towards a tax regime that will be more adapted to new environmental challenges”. The report presents an identification of a number of subsidies, an assessment of those that are harmful to biodiversity and analysis of those measures in need of reform. It reaches pragmatic recommendations which, if applied, would reduce harm to biodiversity.


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Author(s): Guillaume Sainteny (Centre d'Analyse Stratégique - République Française)
Tuesday, Mar 31 2015
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The Bottom Line: Taking Stock of the Role of Offsets in Corporate Carbon Strategies

In 2013, CDP-reporting companies purchased 50.3 million offsets. This is equivalent to not burning 117 million barrels of oil, or shutting down 13 coal-fired power plants for one year. But it still represents less than 1% of reporting companies’ 2013 emissions not reduced by other means. This report explores offsetting from a business perspective, exploring how companies incorporate offsetting into comprehensive carbon management strategies – and how they drive investment in these emissions reductions activities.


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Author(s): Allie Goldstein (Ecosystem Marketplace)
Sunday, Mar 15 2015
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Building Inclusive Green Economies in Africa

This report summarizes the key findings of a series of assessment reports recently carried out by the Green Economy in Africa project supported by the European Union and led by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in close collaboration with national partners. While each country is forging its own pathway, the report presents an array of examples that show how countries at the forefront of this transition recognize the potential of shifting to a green, low carbon and inclusive economy. Building on a strong endowment of natural resources, skills and cultures, Africa is well-poised to benefit from a global shift to more sustainable models of economic growth.


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Author(s): United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Thursday, Mar 5 2015
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Shortfalls and Solutions for Meeting National and Global Conservation Area Targets

Governments have committed to conserving 17% of terrestrial and 10% of marine environments globally, especially “areas of particular importance for biodiversity” through “ecologically representative” Protected Area (PA) systems or other “area-based conservation measures”, while individual countries have committed to conserve 3–50% of their land area. The study estimates that PAs currently cover 14.6% of terrestrial and 2.8% of marine extent, but the majority of PAs have inadequate coverage. it would require nearly doubling to achieve, costefficiently, coverage targets for all countries, ecoregions, important sites, and species. Greater focus is therefore needed on alternative approaches, including community- and privately managed sites and other effective area-based conservation measures.


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Author(s): S.H.M. Butchart et al.
Monday, Mar 2 2015
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Madagascar World Parks Congress 2014

The report describes the malagasy contributions to the last World Parks Congress held in Sydney, Australia, in Novemebr 2014. The malagasy delegation has been selected to take part in 4 streams during the congress and 11 presentations are discussed in this document.


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Author(s): Madagascar Biodiversity Fund (FAPBM)
Sunday, Mar 1st 2015
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From crisis to opportunity: Five steps to sustainable European economies

This report presents WWF’s analysis and recommendations on why and how Europe should shift to sustainable economies, boldly and rapidly. It is mainly addressed to the EU institutions. WWF puts forward this publication with a double aim: to show why a new economic path towards sustainability is both a necessity and a huge opportunity for Europe, and to present a concrete and ambitious policy roadmap to EU decision-makers.


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Author(s): WWF European Policy Office
Saturday, Feb 28 2015
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